Selected Logging Operation Definitions

1. "Arch." An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends of trees or logs when they are skidded.

2. "Backcut (felling cut)." The final cut in a felling operation.

4. "Buck." To cut a felled tree into logs.

5. "Butt." The bottom of the felled part of a tree.

6. "Cable yarding." The movement of felled trees or logs from the area where they are felled to the landing on a system composed of a cable suspended from spars and/or towers. The trees or logs may be either dragged across the ground on the cable or carried while suspended from the cable.

7. "Chock." A block, often wedge shaped, which is used to prevent movement; e.g., a log from rolling, a wheel from turning.

8. "Choker." A sling used to encircle the end of a log for yarding. One end is passed around the load, then through a loop eye, end fitting or other device at the other end of the sling. The end that passed through the end fitting or other device is then hooked to the lifting or pulling machine.

9. "Danger tree." A standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree.

10. "Debark." To remove bark from trees or logs.

11. "Deck." A stack of trees or logs.

13. "Domino felling." The partial cutting of multiple trees which are left standing and then pushed over with a pusher tree.

14. "Fell (fall)." To cut down trees.

15. "Feller (faller)." An employee who fells trees.

16. "Grounded." The placement of a component of a machine on the ground or on a device where it is firmly supported.

19. "Landing." Any place where logs are laid after being yarded, and before transport from the work site.

20. "Limbing." To cut branches off felled trees.

21. "Lodged tree (hung tree)." A tree leaning against another tree or object which prevents it from falling to the ground.

22. "Log." A segment sawed or split from a felled tree, such as, but not limited to, a section, bolt, or tree length.

23. "Logging operations." Operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking danger trees and trees/logs to be cut to length, felling, limbing, bucking, debarking, chipping, yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines, equipment and personnel to, from and between logging sites.

24. "Machine." A piece of stationary or mobile equipment having a self-contained power plant, that is operated off-road and used for the movement of material. Machines include, but are not limited to, tractors, skidders, front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, swing yarders, log stackers, log loaders, and mechanical felling devices, such as tree shears and feller-bunchers. Machines do not include airplanes or aircraft (e.g., helicopters).

25. "Rated capacity." The maximum load a system, vehicle, machine or piece of equipment was designed by the manufacturer to handle.

26. "Root wad." The ball of a tree root and dirt that is pulled from the ground when a tree is uprooted.

28. "Skidding." The yarding of trees or logs by pulling or towing them across the ground.

29. "Slope (grade)." The increase or decrease in altitude over a horizontal distance expressed as a percentage. For example, a change of altitude of 20 feet (6 m) over a horizontal distance of 100 feet (30 m) is expressed as a 20 percent slope.

30. "Snag." Any standing dead tree or portion thereof.

31. "Spring pole." A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension due to the pressure or weight of another object.

33. "Undercut." A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback.

35. "Winching." The winding of cable or rope onto a spool or drum.

36. "Yarding." The movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing.

Felled from the US Department of Labor.

Posted May 26, 2011.